對實現高質量發展的幾點思考

發布時間:2018-12-13    信息來源:超級管理員

文章來源:人民日報

  改革開放40年里,中國經濟以年均近10%的高速增長,綜合國力躍居世界前列。當前,中國經濟進入轉型期,開始從資本投資和出口帶動型增長,過渡到以消費和服務業為重心、以技術為導向的新型發展方式上來。這個轉型任重道遠,但意義重大,它不僅將支持中國的可持續發展,也會為世界帶來更多發展機遇。

  高質量發展不等于是低速增長,在適合的政策支持下,能夠實現質量與速度并存的持續的經濟發展,并給人們帶來實實在在的好處。

  穩定的宏觀經濟環境是高質量發展的前提。高質量發展是個長期目標,達到這個目標需要穩定的宏觀經濟環境,避免主要經濟變量出現過度波動。政府應采取合適的財政、貨幣、金融等政策組合,并通過推進結構性改革、優化資源配置、提高機構效率等方式促進經濟轉型。公共支出應該主要應用在教育、社會保障等最能提高增長潛力和促進包容性增長的方面。

  堅持對外開放是高質量發展的必要條件。自由貿易使世界受益。研究發現,在國際貿易快速發展的20年間,脫貧人口超過人類歷史上的任何其他時期。自由貿易降低了家庭的生活成本,也顯著提高了生產率。貿易自由化也有助于促進市場競爭,帶來公司研發動力和前沿技術的溢出效應。據國際貨幣基金組織估算,貿易摩擦升級可能會在未來兩年內降低全球經濟增長率超過0.8個百分點;相反,如果全球服務貿易成本降低15%,那么今年二十國集團的GDP可能再增加3500億美元,這相當于一個南非的GDP。

  轉變發展動力、提高生產率是高質量發展的核心。近年來,中國在諸多領域快速發展,整體經濟的技術含量有所上升,但要轉變到全面依靠技術進步和提高勞動生產率來保持中高速、高質量發展上來,仍大有可為。以創新驅動增長,包括技術創新、管理創新和產品創新,是發展的關鍵。實現可持續高質量發展要求不斷學習、不斷積累知識和人力資本。在這方面,政府應當進一步健全市場經濟體制、完善法律法規,倡導競爭,加強現代化市場監督監管職能。要保持創新的持久活力和領先地位,不僅需要公共投入,也需要不斷增加私人研發投入,需要政府對研發商業化、對敞開大門吸引高技能人才的支持。

  完善金融體系、發展服務業是高質量增長的橋梁。中國金融市場還有很大空間豐富金融投資產品,規范金融市場行為,疏通投資者和需要集資的優良企業之間的融資渠道,讓金融市場充分發揮其金融媒介作用。近年來,加密資產和區塊鏈在內的金融新技術的廣泛應用大大加快了金融交易速度,降低了交易成本,給未來發展帶來廣闊前景,但如何對這一新領域進行有效、合理的監管,還需摸著石頭過河。發展服務業不僅有助于可持續增長,而且有利于創造就業機會,提高人民生活水平。從全球來看,服務業占GDP比重約為2/3,發達國家服務業占比近80%。中國近幾年服務業發展很快,已經超過GDP的一半,但還有很大的發展空間和增長潛力。

  推進普惠、包容、綠色增長,提高人民福利,這才是高質量發展。中國幾十年的高速增長,解決了十幾億人的溫飽問題,7億多人脫貧,這是中國的輝煌成就,也是世界經濟中里程碑式的發展。全面建成小康社會需要讓人們共同分享經濟發展的成果。尤其是在中國人口老齡化問題日益突出的情況下,完善社會保障網絡對于全面提高人民福利水平、實現普惠的高質量增長至關重要。從長期來看,推進清潔能源的研究、開發和使用,提高污染物排放標準等政策,對從資源使用型過渡到環境保護型的新型發展方式非常重要。

  實現可持續、高質量發展需要一個國家堅持不懈的長期努力和務實奮斗。中國作為發展中的經濟大國,更需了解國際經濟特點,把握發展趨勢。天時人事日相催,冬至陽生春又來。世界經濟風起云涌,挑戰中孕育著巨大的發展機會。中國逐漸步入高收入國家行列,將會為世界帶來更多發展機遇。(林建海 劉 菲)

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